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A comprehensive glossary of frequently used terms in infertility and assisted reproduction.

Glossary of terms D to F

Welcome to the glossary aspect of the site. Here we have included a list of all the terms that have been used in the site with an accompanying definition or explanation.

D & C Dilatation and Curettage. It is the dilatation of the cervical canal followed by the scrapping of the uterine lining.
Dilator An instrument used to enlarge a small opening.
Danazol A drug, which reduces estrogen levels and is often used to treat endometriosis.
Diagnostic laparoscopy The insertion of a fibre optic telescope into the abdomen to look for abnormalities of the internal pelvic organs.
DIPI Direct intraperitoneal insemination. This is the injection of washed and prepared sperm into the peritoneal cavity under ultrasound guidance.
Dizygotic Derived from two. Dizygotic twins were two seperate eggs fertilized by seperate sperm.
DNA A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA. DNA consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds.
Donor insemination The insemination of donor sperm into the vagina, the cervix, the womb, the tube or peritoneum.
DOT Direct Oocyte (egg) Transfer into the uterus.
Down-regulation Suppression of the natural secretion of gonadotropins by using GnRh analogues.
Down's syndrome A genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy An inherited sex-linked muscular disease.
Dysfunctional Abnormal function.
Ectopic pregnancy A pregnancy outside the uterine cavity.
Egg collection The procedure by which eggs are collected from the woman's ovaries.
Egg donor A woman who donates her eggs.
Egg recipient A woman who receives embryos created with donor eggs.
Ejaculate (semen) The sperm and the seminal fluid that comes out of the urethra when a man has an orgasm.
Ejaculatory ducts A pair of ducts; each formed by the joining of a seminal vesicle with a vas deferens.
Embryo A fertilized egg up to eight weeks of development.
Embryo donor A couple who donate their spare embryos to either infertile couples or for research purposes.
Embryo recipient A woman who receives one or more donated embryos.
Embryo transfer The replacement of one or more embryos into the uterine cavity.
Endometrium The lining of the womb, it undergoes cyclical changes during the menstrual cycle.
Endometriosis The presence of small implants of endometrial tissue outside the uterus in abnormal locations.
Epididymis Coiled tubing outside the testicles which store the sperm.
Estradiol The main female hormone.
Epididymitis Inflammation of the epididymis
ERPC Evacuation of Retained Products of Conception.
Estrogens (Oestrogens) Female sex hormones, a group of hormones that are produced mainly by the ovaries. They are essential for normal sexual development (the breasts, vagina, womb, broad hips and rounded figure etc.) and for the reproductive system (make the cervical mucus amenable to the entry of sperm, prepare the endometrium and regulate the production of FSH and LH).
Estradiol (Oestradiol) The most potent naturally occurring estrogens in humans.
Fallopian tubes A pair of tubes between the uterus and ovaries, where the sperm and egg meet in normal conception.
Fertilization (fertilisation) The penetration of an egg by sperm to initiate embryo development.
Fetus The term used for an embryo after the eighth week of development until birth.
Fibroids Benign tumor made of uterine muscle and connective tissue.
Fimbria The finger like ends of the Fallopian tubes that sweep over the surface of the ovary, and help to direct the egg into the tube.
Flow cytometry A method of sperm sorting used for sex selection. X and Y chromosome bearing sperm are stained with different flourescent dyes and then can be sorted by colour.
Follicle A fluid filled cyst in the ovary in which the egg develops.
Follicular phase The first half of the menstrual cycle before ovulation.
Frigidity The inability to become sexually aroused.
FSH Follicle stimulating hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. It stimulates the growth of follicles in the female, and sperm production in the male.
Fundus The upper region of the uterus. The Fallopian tube open into the opposite corners of the fundus.

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