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A comprehensive glossary of frequently used terms in infertility and assisted reproduction.

Glossary of terms G to I

Welcome to the glossary aspect of the site. Here we have included a list of all the terms that have been used in the site with an accompanying definition or explanation.

Galactorrhoea Abnormal milk secretion from the breasts.
Gamete The male sperm or the female egg.
Gene The unit of inheritence. Everyone inherits two copies of each gene. One from the father, and one from the mother.
Genome The basic sets of genes in a chromosome.
Gestational sac A fluid filled sac that develops within the cavity of the womb early in pregnancy.
GIFT Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer.
Gonads Sex organs, the ovaries in the females and the testes in the males.
Gonal-F A recombinant (genetically engineered) human follicular stimulating hormone, known as a 'fertility drug'.
Gonorrhoea A sexually transmitted disease that can cause pelvic infection and subsequent pelvic damage and infertility.
GnRh Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, is a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the pituitary gland to release FSH and LH. GnRh preparation are produced synthetically.
GnRh analogues A synthetic hormone similar to the natural gonadotropin releasing hormone. Two types are available: agonists and antagonists.
Gonadotropins Fertility drugs given by injection to stimulate the sex glands  to produce many follicles. They are similar in composition to the natural FSH and LH produced by the pituitary gland.
Habitual abortion Repeat miscarriages.
Hemophilia A sex-linked inherited blood disease found almost exclusively in men. It is characterized by delayed blood clotting and difficulty in controlling hemorrhage, even after minor injury.

A disease transmitted from one's ancestors.

Hepatitis B and C Viruses that may be transmitted sexually or by blood and can cause infection of the liver which can lead to jaundice or liver failure.
hCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone (hCG) is produced in early pregnancy to stimulate the corpus luteum to produce the hormone progesterone and estrogen, and is excreted in the urine (the substance detected in pregnancy tests). Also, hCG may be given by injection to induce ovulation and to support the luteal phase in females. It stimulates the production of the male hormone testosterone in males.
Heterozygous Having two different alleles of a particular gene.
Homozygous Having two of the same alleles of a particular gene.
HIV The Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that causes Acquired Immuno Deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
HFEA Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority in the UK.
Hirsutism Abnormal or excessive hair growth in the body and face.
hMG Human Menopausal Gonadotropin. It consists of FSH and LH.
Hormones Chemical substances (chemical messengers) secreted by endocrine glands, to regulate activities of certain cells and organs.
HRT Hormone Replacement Treatment.
Humegon A fertility drug which is given by injection. It is consists of FSH and LH.
Huntington's disease An inherited sex-linked nervous disease that develops in adulthood and leads to a state of deteriorated mentality.
Hydrosalpinx A blocked, dilated and fluid filled Fallopian tube usually caused by a previous infection. The diagnosis of hydrosalpinx is usually made by HSG and also by laparoscopy. Patient usually suffer from chronic or recurrent pelvic pain.
Hypothalamus A small gland in the base of the brain and above the pituitary gland. It controls many body functions such as temperature and appetite, and regulates the secretion of hormones by the pituitary gland.
Hyperprolactinemia This is the name given to the excess production of the hormone prolactin in both males or females. It may cause ovulation and menstrual disorders in females and sexual dysfunction in males. There are many causes including hypothyroidism, side effects of certain drugs and pituitary tumor.
Hyperthyroidism Over production of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypothyroidism Under production of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hysterectomy Surgical removal of the uterus.
Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) An X-ray of the uterus and womb in which a radio opaque dye is injected through the cervix into the uterus and tubes.
Hysteroscope A thin fibre optic telescope that is inserted through the cervix to inspect the inside of the uterus.
ICSI Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection is a variation of IVF treatment, where a single sperm is injected into the cytoplasm of an egg. 
Idiopathic No causes found.
Immunoglobulin Also called antibodies, produced by B lymphocytes to bind to foreign antigens.
Implantation The bedding of the embryo  into the lining of the womb.
Impotence Inability of a man to have or maintain an erection.
Infertility Inability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse.
Intrauterine insemination Insemination of washed and prepared sperm into the uterus.
IUCD Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device.
IVF In Vitro Fertilization.

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