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A comprehensive glossary of frequently used terms in infertility and assisted reproduction.

Glossary of terms M to O

Welcome to the glossary aspect of the site. Here we have included a list of all the terms that have been used in the site with an accompanying definition or explanation.

MAR Mixed Agglutination Reaction, a test to check for the presence or absence of antisperm antibodies.
Menarche A girls first menstrual cycle.
Menogon A fertility drug given by injection and consists of FSH and LH.
Menopause A condition when the ovaries ran out of eggs. It usually characterized by absence of periods, hot flushes, sweating and mood changes. The usual age for menopause is about 52 years.
Menstruation The monthly bleed which takes place if no pregnancy occurs.
Menstrual cycle A series of cyclical changes that occur in the female genital system each month.
MESA Micro Epididymal Sperm Aspiration. A procedure to aspirate sperm from the epididymis.
Metrodine HP A fertility drug given by injection and consists of a highly purified FSH.
Micromanipulation The performance of surgery, injection, dissection, laser etc. under the microscope using specialized instruments (micromanipulators).
Microsurgery Surgery performed under magnification using delicate instruments and precise techniques. It is generally used to repair small organs such as tubes and vas deferens.
Miscarriage Loss of pregnancy from the womb before it is viable (capable of surviving independently outside the womb). Doctors usually use the term abortion instead of miscarriage. However, this is confusing to the layman who understands abortion as meaning the deliberate termination of pregnancy rather than accidental loss of a pregnancy.
Monozygotic Means single. In monozygotic twins one fertilized egg seperates into two identical zygotes.
Morula The fertilized egg after a few days of development when it forms a ball of cells.
Motility The percentages of all moving sperm in a semen sample.
Multiple birth Birth of more than one baby from a pregnancy.
Multiple birth rate The percentage of all births in which more than one baby was born.
Multiple pregnancy The percentage of all pregnancies in which two or more fetal hearts are present.
Myometrium The middle muscular layer of the womb.
Myomectomy Surgical removal of a fibroid.
Necrozoospermia All sperm in the ejaculate are dead.
Neonatal death The death of a baby within 28 completed days of delivery.
Normegon A fertility drug given by injection. It consists of FSH and LH.
Nucleus The part of the cell that contains the genetic material DNA.
OATS Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OATS) means low sperm count, low sperm motility and a high proportion of abnormal sperm.
Oestrogens (Estrogens) Female sex hormones, a group of hormones that are produced mainly by the ovaries. They are essential for normal sexual development (the breasts, vagina, womb, broad hips and rounded figure etc.) and for the reproductive system (make the cervical mucus amenable to the entry of sperm, prepare the endometrium and regulate the production of FSH and LH).
Oestradiol (Estradiol) The most potent naturally occurring estrogens in humans.
OHSS Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. A possible side effect with some fertility drugs. It is characterized by swollen, painful ovaries and, in some cases, the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen and chest.
Oligomennorhoea Infrequent periods.
Oligozoospermia Low sperm count.
Oligoovulation Infrequent ovulation.
Oophorectomy The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Orgafol A fertility drug given by injection. It consists of highly purified FSH.
Os External and internal openings at each end of the cervical canal.
Ovaries The two female sex glands which produce eggs and hormones.
Ovarian cyst A fluid-filled cavity inside the ovary.
Ovarian reserve The ability of the ovary to produce eggs .
Ovulation The release of a mature egg from its follicle.
Ovulatory cycle A series of cyclical changes that occur within the ovary each month and result in the release of an egg.
Ovulation induction The use of fertility drugs to stimulate ovulation if the woman is not producing eggs regularly. The aim is to restore physiological ovulation (single follicle). The aim of superovulation is to override physiology and stimulate multiple follicle development.
Ovum (oocyte) An egg.

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