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A comprehensive glossary of frequently used terms in infertility and assisted reproduction.

Glossary of terms J to L

Welcome to the glossary aspect of the site. Here we have included a list of all the terms that have been used in the site with an accompanying definition or explanation.

Karyotype A complete set of human chromosomes.
Kallman syndrome Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disorder that is defined by a delay/absence of signs of puberty along with an absent/impaired sense of smell. The condition can occur in both males and females but is more commonly diagnosed in males. Left untreated, patients with Kallmann syndrome will almost invariably infertile.
Klinefelter's syndrome A chromosomal abnormality affecting males caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome. It is characterized by small testes, enlarged breasts, and the absence of facial and body hair. Men with Klinefelter syndrome do not usually produce sperm except in very rare cases. The condition occurs by chance and the cause is unknown. The extra chromosome is present due to a genetic mistake occurring at the time of cell division to produce the egg or sperm that went to make the baby.
Laparoscope A fibre optic telescope that is inserted through the abdomen to examine the inside of the abdomen and pelvis.
Laparotomy A major abdominal surgery through a cut in the abdomen.
Leydig's cells Cells within the testes that produce the hormone testosterone.
LH Luteinizing (luteinising) hormone, a pituitary hormone that triggers ovulation and stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone. In males, LH stimulates the Leydig's cells to produce testosterone.
LH surge The rapid rise of luteinizing hormone that usually occur in the middle of the cycle. It causes the follicle to release a mature egg.
Liquefaction The process by which ejaculate turns from a jellylike consistency to liquid.
Live birth rate per cycle The number of live births achieved from every 100-treatment cycle commenced.
Luteal phase The second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation.
Luteal phase defect A condition in which the endometrium (lining of the womb) do not develop adequately for implantation, mainly because of inadequate progesterone levels or due to inability of the endometrium to respond to progesterone. In a small minority of women, the cause can be attributed to hyperprolactinemia or abnormal thyroid gland functions. It is characterized by a shorter than normal luteal phase or one with a progesterone deficit.

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