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A comprehensive glossary of frequently used terms in infertility and assisted reproduction.

Glossary of terms P to R

Welcome to the glossary aspect of the site. Here we have included a list of all the terms that have been used in the site with an accompanying definition or explanation.

PCOS Polycystic ovarian syndrome, an abnormal condition in which the ovaries have many minute cysts and there is excess androgen (male hormone) production.
PCT Post-coital test, a microscopic examination of a women's cervical mucus after intercourse to check the number and motility of sperm in the mucus.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Infection involving pelvic organs especially the tubes and ovaries. It may result in damage or blockage of the Fallopian tubes.
Pergonal (hMG) A fertility drug given by injection. It consists of equal amounts of FSH and LH. It is recovered from the urine of post-menopausal women.
Pergoveris A fertility drug given by injection. It contains 150 IU recombinant FSH and 75 IU recombinant LH.
Perinatal death rate The number of stillbirths and first week deaths per 1000 delivered (livebirths and stillbirths).
PESA Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration, this involves retrieving sperm directly from the epididymis using a needle.
Pituitary gland A small gland located in the base of the brain and just beneath the hypothalamus, it secretes many hormones including FSH and LH.
PGD Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, the techniques by which embryos fertilized in vitro is tested for specific genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and hemophilia before being transferred into the uterus.
PGS Preimplantation Genetic Screening is technique used to examine the embryo for aneuploidy (wrong number of chromosomes), and only transfer normal embryos.
Placenta The afterbirth organ to which the developing embryo and fetus is connected by the umbilical cord.
Polyp A small growth, usually benign protruding from the endometrium and dangle into the cavity of the womb. It may interfere with embryo implantation by acting like a coil. Polyps are usually removed surgically.
Pregnancy rate per cycle The number of pregnancies achieved from every 100-treatment cycle commenced.
Pregnyl A fertility drug given by injection and consists of Human chorionic gonadotropin.
Preterm delivery The delivery before completion of 37 weeks of pregnancy
Premature menopause A condition in which menopause occurs before the age of 40. It affects approximately 1% of women. In most cases there is no identifiable cause. The only effective treatment for infertility is IVF with donated eggs.
Profasi A fertility drug given by injection and consists of Human chorionic gonadotropin.
Progesterone A hormone secreted by the corpus luteum in the second half of the menstrual cycle to stimulate the endometrium and prepare it for implantation and maintains it should pregnancy occur, progesterone is produced in large quantities by the placenta.
Prostap A long-acting GnRh agonist drug used to induce pituitary down-regulation.
Prostate gland A chestnut-sized gland in the male that lies below the bladder and encircles the urethra where the ejaculatory ducts, the two vas differences, and the urethra join, it contributes fluid to the ejaculate.  
Puregon A recombinant Follicle stimulating hormone 'fertility drug'.
PZD Partial Zona Dissection, a micromanipulation procedure to help sperm penetrate the zona pellucida.
Prolactin A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate milk production after childbirth.
Pronucleate stage An early stage of fertilization, when the sperm and egg pronuclei are visible under the microscope.
Prostap A long acting GnRh agonist drug used to induce pituitary down-regulation.
Prostatitis Inflammation of the prostate gland usually as a result of infection.
Recto electro-ejaculation A technique used to obtain an ejaculate from spinal injured, or otherwise impotent men, where a special probe is inserted into the rectum to stimulate the seminal vesicles.
Radiotherapy The use of radiation and radioactive substances to treat cancer.
Retrograde ejaculation The backward release of ejaculate into the bladder instead of the urethra at time of male orgasm.
Rubella Also called 'German measles', it is caused by an infectious virus and is characterized by general rashes and swollen glands. If infection occurs during the first few months of pregnancy it may cause severe congenital abnormalities.

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